Principles Of Hospital Architecture - Hospital grounds and spaces

Principles Of Hospital Architecture - Hospital grounds and spaces

Earth Geometry
Proper ground geometry will be most effective in facilitating the location of entry and exit routes, location and placement relative to the streets and surrounding passages, and the placement of full and empty spaces relative to each other. Thus, the response of the land to the space needs, the relationship between the departments, the economics of the project, etc. are important issues that, for example, a stretched, narrow and disproportionate land will be difficult to meet the needs. Here are some tips in this regard:
1. In choosing the location of the hospital, the lands that allow the east-west expansion for the building have a higher priority.
2. The geometric shape of the earth will affect the location of the medical center according to the following indicators.
A- Earth dimension ratio (length and width)
B- Number of sides of the ground
C- Earth angles
D. Land slope
3. Sloping lands are not suitable for hospital construction. Due to the nature of the hospital, a large part of the audience of these centers are children, the disabled, and patients with physical disabilities, and low-slope sites provide easy access for everyone. Of course, the presence of a gentle slope at the site facilitates the collection of surface water in the space.
4. In the main access side of hospitals, it is possible to separate the main entrance and the emergency entrance.
5. The length and width of the land should be proportional to each other and the minimum size and area suggested should be observed in it.
6. It is possible to extract (enclose) square or rectangular land to the proposed dimensions in the land.
7. It is recommended that the shape of the earth be as close as possible to regular geometric shapes and its sides are preferably less than
5 sides.
8. The angles of the ground are preferably right-angled and there are no defects or shortcomings in the required useful surface.

Hospital grounds and spaces
After addressing the issues related to the location of the hospital and choosing the land and site of the hospital, the next step is to get acquainted with the planning and design in the area of ​​the hospital and the surrounding spaces. In other words, in this stage, the way of organizing, planning, and standardizing the selected land in the previous stage will be done. In this regard, first, the components of these spaces should be identified and introduced, and then the necessary standards in this regard should be stated.
The main elements in the space around the main building of the hospital include the main entrance and entrance of the medical center, paths, and passages, ancillary and service buildings, green spaces and vegetation, parking lots, helipads, etc.

Hospital site entries:
The entrance of the hospital site plays an important role as the first channel in accessing the hospital building. In this regard, to increase convenience, reduce functional interference, and improve the quality of services, it is necessary to consider separate entrances to different functional areas for the hospital site while maintaining protection and security points. The number, location, and dimensions of these entrances are determined based on the relevant needs and the volume of services provided by the hospital. These inputs include the following.
It should be noted that the mentioned entrances are related to the hospital site and provide communication outside the site with the inside and the hospital building and should not be confused with the entrances of the hospital building:
1. Main entrance of the hospital:
The most important entrance of the site that provides the main connection between the hospital and space outside the site is the main entrance of the hospital. Installation of this entrance is mandatory in all hospitals. Also, the main entrance of the hospital must have two separate entrances for pedestrians and vehicles.
This entrance may, in addition to providing access from outside the site to the main entrance of the hospital building, by preparing routes, connect the outside of the complex with other entrances of the hospital building, such as the independent entrance of some diagnostic and treatment spaces (such as a clinic, laboratory, etc.). Provide the entrance of the management and administrative field, the entrance of the educational field (in educational hospitals), service entrances, the entrance of accommodation spaces and pavilions, the entrance of parking, and ...
It should be noted that only the emergency entrance on the site can not be integrated with the main entrance of the hospital and must be planned completely separately. However, depending on the level and volume of services available in the hospital, in addition to the main entrance and emergency, other entrances may be considered on the hospital site, which will be explained in the following.
It is worth mentioning that the dimensions of this entrance should be planned and designed for the movement of all types of light and heavy vehicles.
2. Emergency entrance:
As mentioned, in each hospital, in addition to the main entrance of the hospital, it is mandatory to install an emergency entrance on the hospital site. Also, the access route and entrance to the emergency department must be completely separated from other entrances and passages. This entrance also has to have two separate entrances for pedestrians and vehicles.
Entrance to the hospital site to access the emergency department should be provided in a situation from the hospital site that has adequate access to the main thoroughfares around the site. The entrance to the hospital site to access the emergency department should be located away from traffic jams, busy neighborhoods, narrow passages, and any factors that lead to disruption and delay in providing emergency services.
Also, since childbirth is a normal thing and is not considered a disease, to increase the comfort and convenience of mothers and reduce the stress caused by entering hospital spaces, it is possible to have an independent entrance in the hospital building for this ward. To be considered. In this case, due to the urgency of the delivery process, the entrance and emergency route must be used to access it from outside the site.

3. Clinic entrance:
In regional, polar and national hospitals where the volume of hospital services is significant, to prevent functional interference and increase efficiency, it is recommended to consider a separate entrance for the clinic complex from the hospital site. Of course, as mentioned, due to the volume of services, the main entrance of the hospital on the site may be used for this purpose. This entrance also has to have two separate entrances for pedestrians and vehicles.
4. Parking entrance:
Parking planning is different in different hospitals, in some due to limited parking space can only provide services to management, medical and emergency departments, and in some hospitals in addition to providing parking for different categories of staff The hospital will also be able to provide services to clients and visitors. In this regard, to avoid congestion and crowds, especially during appointments, it is recommended that the entrance to the parking lot be separate from the main entrance of the hospital on the site. It should be noted that the dimensions of these entrances should be planned for the movement of light and heavy vehicles.
5. Procurement and support input:
In large hospitals, there are several services and support departments that have a large volume of various activities. These activities include installation and equipment sections, warehouses, maintenance sections, garbage collection and disposal, kitchen, laundry, and other support sections. This will increase the internal and external traffic of the site with heavy and semi-heavy vehicles such as trucks, vans, etc. In this regard, to separate the functions, increase safety and comfort in hospital routes, prevent congestion and functional interference, etc., it is recommended to consider a separate entrance for services and support.
Of course, in small hospitals, this entrance is usually integrated with the parking entrance. Of course, if the entrance to the parking lot is not foreseen, the main entrance of the hospital can also be used in small hospitals in this regard. It should be noted that the dimensions of these entrances should be planned for the movement of light and heavy vehicles.
6. Emergency and relief entrance:
The hospital must also be designed for critical situations and in this situation provide its services without interruption, in which case the usual entrances can be used for a specific purpose. In addition to the usual entrances, it is necessary to install an emergency entrance to connect the outside environment of the hospital site to the hospital building.
This route should be designed based on the minimum safety standards for critical situations so that in case of damage to other communications of the site in times of crisis, this entrance, and its dedicated route can provide access to the site to transport the injured to the relevant sections. Ambulances such as firefighters also enter through this entrance. Of course, in any case, the emergency entrance must be able to move ambulances. It should be noted that the dimensions of these entrances should be planned for the movement of light and heavy vehicles.
7. Other inputs:
In the design of hospitals, due to their special conditions and at the discretion of expert groups, other entrances may be considered for the hospital site.

Important note:
The location of the entrances of the hospital site is determined based on the desired access to the desired spaces. However, care must be taken not to limit the location of the site inputs to one side of the site and to predict at least two sides based on establishing a direct connection with the desired location within the site. Of course, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that increasing the number of entrances can endanger the security of the site and the hospital, so appropriate solutions in this regard should be considered based on physical space and manpower.
It should be noted that in private hospitals and small public hospitals, due to the size of the land and the level of occupancy of the hospital building, the open space of the hospital is limited and the hospital land may not be separated from the outside space. These will not be clearly separated from each other. Of course, the design team should try to separate the inputs as much as possible.
Routes and passages:
Paths and passages in the spaces around the hospital consist of two main categories of pedestrian and pedestrian passages, each of which includes its own subgroups and requirements.
Pedestrian crossings:
Pedestrian paths fall into two groups: sidewalks and ramps (sloping paths).
Riding routes
 Riding routes are divided into two groups: normal riding routes and sloping roads (sloping routes).
The hospital is one of the centers that many people need to anticipate parking to visit. In these centers, ensuring the provision of parking space standards in terms of dimensions, location, number, division, etc. should be considered. It should be noted that according to the parking level criteria in health and medical uses in most comprehensive urban plans, the area that can be allocated to the parking lot is a maximum of 30% of the total area. Meanwhile, 30% is related to green space and the remaining 40% is related to the occupancy level of the hospital building on the ground floor.
Air communication and helipad
Air emergencies are one of the most important solutions that can be effective in accelerating emergency services in times of crisis. Air communication is usually done by helicopter, and if they use air communication is planned in the hospital, it is necessary to provide the relevant facilities and observe its special rules. These facilities include helicopter landing and take-off (helipad), access routes, flight staff (flight group, flight care group, flight service group), physical service and support spaces, etc.
In this regard, the correct and appropriate design of the helipad is very important. In many cases, non-compliance with the relevant rules and failure to determine the proper position of the helipad has led to an accident during operation or can not be used.
Landscaping and green space
Human energy and health largely depend on the direct effects of the environment in which they live. In a medical center, paying attention to the beauty of the area is very important and can increase staff efficiency, reduce stress, and increase the speed of patients' recovery. A set of green spaces, sidewalks, and sidewalks beautified with suitable materials, benches, signboards, information and service kiosks, awnings, waterfront, lighting, etc., including the initial solutions to beautify the center area, Is therapeutic.
In this regard, one of the most important elements in the landscaping of medical centers is green space. Today, scientific data proves that plants, in addition to beautifying the environment, play a role as a suitable solution to solve many environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to know the types of plants and the method of using them in the landscaping of medical centers.

Green space design methods
According to the above, the importance and necessity of preparing green space in medical centers were clearly identified. In this regard, there are several solutions for designing and using green space in these centers, some of which are mentioned below. :
1. Green space in the open yard
Creating green space in the area around the hospital building is the most common way to enjoy the green space that all clients and groups in the hospital can use. This type of yard can be designed in different situations compared to the hospital building and create different spatial qualities in it. The open yard can be considered in front of, behind, or next to the building or between two hospital buildings. It should be noted that these yards can also be designed indoors to avoid unfavorable weather conditions.
If the open space of the hospital is significant or in medical centers such as health villages, research-medical centers, etc., these yards can be designed on a larger scale and by creating extensive green spaces on the surface. The garden created a variety of spaces for people to use or perform special activities. Among these gardens, we can mention the garden of ornamental plants, the garden of medicinal and therapeutic plants, the fruit garden, and so on.
2. Green space in the central courtyard
The green space surrounded by the buildings of the medical center makes it a central courtyard. These yards are in the form of a semi-private and safe space in which, in addition to the possibility of seeing from inside the surrounding spaces, the possibility of controlling the wind, reducing noise pollution, temperature control, soil stabilization, shading, etc. Are provided to a greater extent. The central courtyards increase the lighting environment of the hospital spaces and can create a suitable view for them. Of course, it is necessary to pay attention to appropriate solutions to eliminate the limitations and problems of this type of design. These include the amount of shading, freezing, the amount of light, and so on. This design method is usually programmable in hot and dry climates. It should be noted that these yards can also be designed indoors to avoid unfavorable weather conditions.
3. Green space in the indoor yard
Some medical centers create a small green space inside or near the building due to cost and limited area. In such spaces, unlike the previous two methods, it is not possible to walk or sit in it and it can be seen only from inside the building or adjacent spaces, which can cause vitality, the freshness of the soul of patients and other people present in Be hospitalized.
4. Greenspace on the roof of the building (green roof)
If the area of ​​the yard is limited to create green space and landscaping, the option of creating green space on the roof with the ability to create a wide view is suitable. In this case, proper access and clarification should be provided to inform users of the existence of such a space on the roof.
It is also necessary to apply the relevant tips and rules such as user safety, infection control, installation of required facilities, removal of annoying elements and sounds, water control, and guidance, moisture insulation, etc.
5. Greenspace on the terrace (green terrace)
Unlike the green roof, which is located on the highest level of the building or is often open in all directions, the green terrace is an accessible outdoor space that is limited in several ways by the building. These terraces are private and safe space and are usually designed in the form of a narrow and long balcony. The plants that are grown on these terraces can be selected in such a way as to create a green view in the hospital building.
6. Greenspace on the wall of the building (green wall)
One of the new methods that have received a lot of attention in sustainable architecture is green walls, which are also known as vertical gardens. This method is divided into two groups: green facades and oxygen-generating walls, and each of them has special features that can be used in the design of medical centers based on the goals and requirements of the design. Green walls, compared to other methods, will have a greater impact on the environment, especially the hospital building, including air purification, thermal insulation of the building, temperature control, increasing humidity, reducing the absorption of solar energy and reflected radiation. , Reducing water pollution and .... noted.